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藏好这篇秘籍,从此虚拟语气不再是难点

2022-03-17 17:0:55

3 喜欢  |  556 阅读

大家好!

我是最近疯狂输出知识,
疯狂输入芝士的小叶佳~
今天分享的是一个
很多同学都头晕目眩的知识点——虚拟语气!
大家一定要好好看一看今天的文章哦~



Q

在进入正题之前,我想先问一下大家:什么叫虚拟语气?

A

小A:我知道!虚拟语气就是If开头的句子嘛...比如:If I am rich, I will buy myself a big house.
小B:咦?我感觉你说的不对。应该是If I were rich, I would have bought myself a big house. 诶?感觉是不是 If i were rich, I would buy myself a big house.
小叶佳:咳咳~我来说两句吧!其实两个宝宝说的这两句话都是对的。但是!小A写的句子,我们一般称之为真实条件句,是有可能发生的事情。而小B写的两个句子叫做虚拟条件句,又叫非真实条件句,用来表达的基本上没有可能发生的事情。
即使小B给的两个句子的时态不一样,但是确实都有可能成立。第一种是错综时间条件句,如果我有钱,我早就买大别墅了。第二种是一般虚拟条件句,如果我有钱,我就会买大别墅。(暗戳戳:实际上,我没有钱呐)
考试中真实条件句和虚拟条件句都会考到,但是真实条件句比较简单,今天我们来看看虚拟条件句中有哪些考点吧~


 



01

什么是虚拟语气

XIAOYEJIA’s SHOW TIME

虚拟语气说话人用来表示强烈的主观愿望或者非真实的情况。主要通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示虚拟的情况。



在GMAT考试中主要考察两个类型

  1. 表示建议、要求、命令等语义后从句中的虚拟语气

  2. 虚拟条件句




02

“建议、要求、命令”型虚拟语气

XIAOYEJIA’s SHOW TIME


1. 看到这些表示建议、要求、命令等的动词要警惕


例1:I propose that Kath set a deadline for her capstone project.


例2Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a staunch advocate of liberalized divorce laws, scandalized many of her most ardent supporters by suggesting that drunkenness be made sufficient cause for divorce.(GWD)

注意suggest的特殊用法:当表示“建议”时,从句要用虚拟语气;当表示“表明”、“透露”时,从句不需要虚拟语气。

Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian. (OG2017-Verbal分册-SC-244)



2. 某些表示建议、要求、命令等的名词


The budget for education reflects the administration's demand that the money be controlled by local school districts. (PREP07-SC-41)



小叶佳有话说:


因为GMAT考试是美国的考试,所以我们需要使用美式英语的表达方法。在美式英语中,“建议、命令、要求”型虚拟语气中,必须省略should,从句谓语动词直接用动词原型。




测试时间,让我们来做几道题目吧!



PREP07-041

The budget for education reflects the administration's demand that money is controlled by local school districts.

A. money is controlled by local school districts.

B. money be controlled by local school districts.




答案:B

这道题不难,大家做对了没有?如果认真看了前面的考点,就会发现在这一题当中demand表示“要求”,从句中需要使用虚拟语气,也就是省略should并且谓语动词使用原型,而“am/is/are”的动词原形是“be”。



让我们再来一题!

OG2016-45

The report recommended that the hospital should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals.

A. should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals

B. should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and other hospitals' space be used

C. should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and to use space in other hospitals

D. eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive services, and other hospitals' space used

E. eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive services, and use space in other hospitals

图片



答案:E

之前我说,在美式英语的“建议、命令、要求”型虚拟语气中,必须省略should。这么一看,A/B/C选项里都有should,直接秒排。D选项不平行,答案就是E啦,是不是记下来这个知识点,做题的速度就蹭蹭蹭上去了呢~

经过这两题的训练,相信大家对“建议、命令、要求”型的虚拟语气考点已经非常明确了。接下来,我们来看看虚拟条件句中的相关考点吧~



03

虚拟条件句

XIAOYEJIA’s SHOW TIME

还记得一开始咱们讨论过的那个句子吗?我们来回忆一下,条件句分为两种:一种是真实条件句,一种是非真实条件句。在GMAT当中主要考察非真实条件句,也称为虚拟条件句。


考点一:虚拟条件句及其主句的谓语形式归纳

记下来,记下来,记下来,重要的话说三遍!!!



可能这张表格的内容有点抽象,让我们来看几个例子体会一下:


与现在事实相反 OG2017-Verbal分册-SC-219

If the Los Angeles metropolitan area were a separate nation, it would have the world's eleventh largest gross national product.

与将来事实相反PREP08-SC-246/OG2017-Verbal分册-SC-219


Scientists have identified an asteroid, 2000 BF19, that is about half a mile wide and that, if it were to strike Earth, could do tremendous damage to part of the planet but would probably not cause planetwide destruction. 

与过去事实相反PREP08-CR-15/PREP08-SC-246/OG2017-Verbal分册-SC-219

Sulfur would have seeped into the outer atmosphere if comet fragments had penetrated this cloud layer. 

怎么样?现在是不是有点感觉了?让我们再来看看下一个考点:



考点二:虚拟条件句的倒装形式


我们先来做一道题目吧!


PREP08-SC-239

Were it not for the fusion-powered heat and radiation that rush from its core, instead its own weight would cause a star to collapse.

A. instead its own weight would cause a star to collapse

B. instead a star would have collapsed under its own weight

C. a star would have to be collapsing under its own weight

D. a star would collapse under its own weight

E. its own weight would have caused a star's collapse




答案:D

很多同学看到这个题目的句首,会有种黑人问号的感觉,这是个什么鬼结构?


知识点:在if从句中,如果有were/ had,从句可以省略句首的if,然后将were/had提前至句首。



所以题目中:Were it not for the fusion-powered heat and radiation that rush from its core


= if it were not for the fusion-powered heat and radiation that rush from its core



看懂了题目结构和语义后,这题是不是几乎变成秒选题了?




插播一个来自 GMAT CR 中的句子:


很多同学因为看不懂这个句子,CR 题目就做不出来,于是来问小叶佳这是个什么鬼结构,我感觉努努力,也是可以成为一名CR老师的嘛!
例:But that prediction would not have adversely affected the dollar had it not been for the government's huge budget deficit. (PREP07-CR-45)
看完了,感觉如何?很多同学说这个would not have adversely affected the dollar had it…, 怎么会接着出现两个谓语动词?
让我们在来过一遍知识点:在if从句中,如果有were/ had,从句可以省略句首的if,然后将were/had提前至句首。


回头再看一遍,这个句子其实是这样的:

But that prediction would not have adversely affected the dollar had it not been for the government's huge budget deficit.


= But that prediction would not have adversely affected the dollar if it had not been for the government's huge budget deficit.


温馨提示????:

小叶佳认为,备考GMAT的优先顺序应该是:


先进行SC的备考,再进行CR和RC的备考,SC考察句子理解,CR考察段落理解,RC考场文章理解,SC句子都读不太明白,CR和RC就更难了,SC整个是verbal的基础。


还有一些同学问过,那上面这个句子为什么不在had it not been…之前加一个逗号呢?


这是因为:if引导的条件状语从句放在句首,一般会用一个逗号和主句分开,但是放在句末的时候可以没有逗号。给大家举两个例子体会一下:


例1:Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place… (OG18-Vebral分册-258)

例2:Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and growing an extra one or two. (OG20-SC865)


大家会发现,第二句来自OG正确选项的句子比较过分,if条件状语从句放在句首,也没用逗号把从句和主句分开所以,逗号在GMAT中的使用相当的灵活,但是同时逗号的使用也会有些条条框框,一个逗号同样能考察同学们读句子和划分句子结构的能力。‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍




考点三含蓄虚拟with/without

例:Kath could have won the fight, with a little more training and a better coach.

这样的句子同学们以前留意过没有?让我们再来做一道练习!


PREP08-SC-239

A patient accusing a doctor of malpractice will find it difficult to prove damage if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify about proper medical procedures.

A. if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify

B. unless there will be another doctor to testify

C. without another doctor's testimony

D. should there be no testimony from some other doctor

E. lacking another doctor to testify




答案:C


很多同学会想,这题我会,真实条件句,if sb/sth do sth, sb/sth will do. 小手一点,答案选A。需要注意是SC正确选项是选择结构和语义最优的,不是看起来结构过得去的。


芜湖终于码完字了,今天分享的虚拟语气是一个对结构和语义逻辑考察很高的结构,同学们一定要掌握好句式结构以及灵活应用。 关于更多的高阶虚拟语气相关的知识,同学们可以一起和我在课程中进一步探讨哦~


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