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~擒贼先擒王,lecture想得高分得抓住but

2021-06-25 11:12:48

1 喜欢  |  683 阅读

我本可以很快乐

都是听力害了我

如果再要细细说

就是lecture它的锅




今天满分君就给大家请来了听力巧匠媛媛老师

带大家一起攻克lecture难关



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考满分托福听力名师:王方媛

研究生毕业于纽约大学TESOL专业,英语专业八级,曾参与教授纽约大学、哥伦比亚大学课程。深入研究英语教学法,深知中国学生英语学习的痛点和盲区,多年教学经验构建的听力系统教学法让学生在短期内获得听力水平质的飞跃。



同学们害怕托福听力的Lecture,往往是因为话题不熟悉、单词不认识、信息记不住,听了两三分钟就感觉听不进去了。


但其实Lecture的套路性是非常强的,除了我们反复强调的熟悉单词发音、坚持精听来提升基本功以外,做托福听力时最重要的一点就是要理解文章的分层,每一句的信息和前后内容都是相关的,通过逻辑链把信息串起来,边听边思考文章的段落结构,把一篇长文章分成几个小段来理解,听力信息就会变得清晰很多。

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那么段落分层要怎么来抓呢,除了通过对内容的理解来分层以外,我们要注意抓住一些典型的信号词给到我们的提示。今天我们就来说一个在听力里非常重要的转折信号词—but。

 




1. 提示全文主旨信息



大家都知道在听文章开头的时候要注意抓全文主旨信息,但当文章的主旨信息出现得比较晚,且没有非常明显的Today/Now之类的主旨提示词时,很多同学就会抓不住主旨信息。


我们来听听看这一段的内容,思考一下主旨是什么:(Official32 Set5音频)



1-Official32_Set5音频.m4a00:0001:53



What is thelecture mainly about?

A. Theenvironmental effects of heap roasting

B. Thereforestation efforts in the Copper Basin

C. Theprocess of mining and producing copper

D. Damagescaused during an attempt to clean up industrial waste

 


这一篇开头的信息就不太好听懂了,出现了不少难的词汇,同学们可能会听到有个叫Copper Basin的地方环境被破坏了,然后人们努力去修复它,又提到了一个河流很干净,还听到一个叫Heap Roasting的专有名词。


题目中每一个选项都有文中听到的一些相对应的信息,到底哪个才是主旨内容呢,这就需要我们在听文章的时候不仅仅是听懂内容,更需要去有意识地去判断信息,什么才是今天要讲的重点。



在这一篇中,前面讲Copper Basin的介绍和恢复的努力都是背景信息,真正的主旨就是在信号词but后出现的内容,教授说:“But anyway…let's analyze the problem. It wasn't the miningitself that caused such massive destruction. It was what happened after thecopper ore was extracted from the mines. It was a process called heap roasting.”所以今天要讲的就是heap roasting造成的问题,对应A选项,紧扣住信号词But后面提示的信息。

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Now, you may not have heard of the CopperBasin. It's in the eastern United States-in the Tennessee River Valley. It gotits name because settlers discovered copper there in 1843. And soon afterwards,it supported one of the largest metal-mining operations in America. At one time,four mining companies employed twenty-five hundred workers in the Copper Basin.For that time period it was a huge operation. Well, this mining operationturned the Copper Basin into a desert. In the 1840s, when mining operationsstarted, it was a dense green forest. But in the 1940s, 100 years later, it wasas barren as the Moon.

 

Efforts to reclaim the land and restorethe basin to the fertile valley it once was…well, actually, those efforts arestill ongoing. It's been a long and tedious process. In fact, uh, it was manyyears before any results were seen-copper mining had gone on there for morethan 90 years. The damage couldn't be reversed overnight. Although I shouldmention that by 1996 the water in one of the rivers flowing through the basinwas clean enough that it was the site of the Olympic whitewater kayakingcompetition. And that river is still used now for recreation. But anyway…let's analyzethe problem. It wasn't the mining itself that caused such massivedestruction. It was what happened after the copper ore was extracted from themines. It was a process calledheap roasting. (Official32 Set5)

 

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2. 提示新的段落分层



在文章的主体段中,but出现提示段落分层,且提示我们和上一段落信息讲的是相反的。特别是当老师提到了一些做法、方案之后,教授会通过but转折引出对这一方案的负面评价。我们来听听看这一段:(Official25 Set2音频)



2-Official25_Set2音频.m4a00:0000:52




前一段讲到了由于生态环境碎片化,动物很难在没有帮助的情况下自行迁徙,讲到人为帮助迁移的重要性。然后通过now、but提示分层,引出下一个段落的主旨信息,“but there are a number of uncertainties and risks.” 我们就知道接下来要讲的是人为迁徙的几种问题和风险性,再去具体听有哪些问题,梳理并列关系,这样听下来的话文章的结构就会感觉非常清晰,也不会觉得信息量那么大了。



Ecosystems are fragmented. Housingdevelopments, highways, and cities have replaced or sliced through forests andprairies. There’re few corridors left for species to migrate through—withouthelp. So, conservationists are trying to save as many species as possible.

 

Now, assisted migration could become a viable part of our rescuestrategy, but thereare a number of uncertainties and risks. Without more research, we can’tpredict if assisted migration will work for any given species. A translocatedspecies could die out from lack of food, for example. At the other extreme, wemight successfully translocate a species, but within five or ten years, thatspecies could proliferate and become an invasive species. Like a nonnativeplant that chokes out native plants by hogging the nutrients in the soil. (Official25Set2)

 

总结一下,在托福听力中,文章开头注意听but提示全文的主旨信息;在主体段落中注意but提示新的文章分层,且和上一段的信息取反。


image.png


在听文章时不要孤立地理解每句话的信息,多联系前后内容,去想整个段落的主旨大意是什么,把文章划分成几个层次来理解,听力内容也就没有那么繁复了。快打开托福听力,感受一下but的妙用吧~


听了媛媛老师讲解,lecture好像也没那么难了哦,but果然是个神奇的单词,一定要学会抓住



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