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~考个托福被PUA了?

2021-06-25 10:43:32

1 喜欢  |  707 阅读

什么是PUA?

简单说就是让你觉得自己不够好

是个good-for-nothing的废物

最终丧失信心

自我摧毁


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在托福听力里,PUA也很常见

就拿学科词汇来说,每篇5个起

各个闻所未闻,见所未见

认真低头狂记,记完又不考

就感觉被PUA了,被虐时间一久

难免陷入痛苦无比

怀疑自己的局面




那么在听力备考当中大家如何去正确对待学科词汇呢?


今天的方菲老师会跟大家分享一下正确对待学科词汇的方法以及对应的一些学科背景????



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考满分托福听力名师:方菲

考满分托福听力主讲老师、教学培训师、ETS官方培训教师,托福听力满分。研究生毕业于英国爱丁堡大学,有三年校内英文播音和半年美国交流工作经验,熟悉英美文化和留学生活,人称“口语最好听的听力老师”,帮助学生通过系统学习快速掌握听力学科,获得理想分数。



开始备考托福听力的同学们应该会注意到,托福听力是一个学科性很强的科目,对应的文章里面会有高频的学科题材。其中可以分为四个大类????


社会科学
自然科学
生命科学
文学艺术



很多同学开始听lecture的时候会非常不适应,觉得内容学术,尤其是很多学科词汇,让人觉得无从下手。




听力文本



比如大家可以简单看看这一篇天文学的听力文本,放眼望去不熟悉的词汇和表达就会很多:


MALE PROFESSOR:There's been a lot of talk recently about life on Mars, at the level of microorganisms anyway, mainly because of a few important discoveries and inventions.


For example, one major discovery was that at one point water was present on Mars.How do we know?Well, in 2004, an exploration robot discovered jarosite there.

Jarosite is a yellowish-brown mineral with a crystalline structure that's also found on Earth.It contains iron, potassium, and hydroxide.The interesting thing is that on Earth at least, it needs highly acidic water to form.


So we've got water... or had it at one point.And since most planetary scientists believe that water is essential to life, the presence of jarosite means that one prerequisite for life was once present on Mars.

But there's another thing about jarosite: one step in its formation on Earth involves microorganisms.They actually speed up the formation of jarosite dramatically.


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Now, theoretically it is possible for jarosite to form without the help of biological life forms-but we don't really know for sure if this happens 'cause, well, because every corner of Earth has some form of biological life.


But jarosite on Earth incorporates all kinds of microorganisms into its crystalline structure.So it's possible that if the jarosite on Mars was also formed with the help of microorganisms, we might be able to detect remnants of them in the samples we find.


And we have instruments now that will enable us to try to do this.For example, there's a new instrument called the microfabricated organic analyzer, or M.O.A.

The organic analyzer is an amazing tool.It will be able to collect soil samples and analyze them right there on Mars. Pure, untouched samples.It will let us eliminate the risk we would take of contaminating the samples if they were brought back to Earth.

And what they'll look for specifically in the soil is amino acids. Amino acids, as you may know, are the building blocks of proteins.In fact, there are twenty standard amino acids involved in making proteins, and lots more that aren't.


And here's the important thing: amino acids are what we call handed.They can exist in two forms, which are mirror images of each other. Like hands.Right and left hands have the same number of fingers in the same order, plus one thumb.


But right and left hands are not the same; they're mirror images.Well, like hands, amino acids can be right- or left-handed.And the twenty that make up the proteins on Earth are all left-handed.


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Now, one reason the M.O.A., the organic analyzer, is so impressive is that it tests not just for the presence of amino acids, but also for the handedness of amino acids.


If amino acids are found, it would be especially interesting if they show a prevalence of one type of handedness, either left, like amino acids on Earth, or right.See, other physical processes in space, processes that don't involve living organisms, can create amino acids.


But the ones synthesized through abiotic processes, which is to say not involving microorganisms, occur in equal numbers of right-and left-handed.[Summarizing] So, a prevalence of left-handed amino acids would indicate they were biological in origin, which would be amazing.


A prevalence of right-handed ones, well that would be really amazing.Because the organisms that created them would be unlike anything we have on Earth, which produce only left-handed ones.


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高频学科词汇



对于这样学科性比较强的文章,大家在听的时候需要注意积累学科词汇和表达,但是不需要太多关注学术名词,因为像这样的词文章中都会给出对应解释,并且题目中也不会专门考查学术名词的意思。


比如:Jarosite这个词,在文中出现的时候,大家并不需要反应它的意思,而且后文紧接着就开始了解释:Jarosite is a yellowish-brown mineral with a crystalline structure that's also found on Earth. It contains iron, potassium, and hydroxide.


那么大家在听的时候只要能够反应出来这是文中要讲解的一种矿物质就好了,然后再去继续反应后文的重要信息更重要。


关于学科词汇的积累,比如天文学,大家可以在听文章之后,结合语境进行记忆,例如mineral矿物质,microorganism微生物,prerequisite先决条件等这些比较高频出现的词汇。




与此同时大家可以用考满分词汇app挑选学科专业分类词汇进行听和背诵记忆,在阅读和听力中都会用到这些学科词汇。


那么对应听力中的高频学科比如天文学,我们需要掌握的学科背景知识以及单词有哪些呢?这里给大家一些内容作为参考。


大家会发现这篇文章所对应的内容就是火星上是否有生命存在的话题,而对于火星生命的考查最重要的就是含水矿物质的存在。




关于这部分的背景知识,大家可以对应了解一下,当有了一些中文背景知识之后,听文章会知道结构和框架????




背景讲解



2013 年 3 月初,美国宇航局“好奇”号火星车发现火星岩石中存在含水矿物质的可靠证据, 该岩石样本位于之前“好奇”号挖掘发现黏土层的邻近位置。


“好奇”号科学小组宣称,科学家对该火星车挖掘的泥岩岩石粉末样本分析表明,火星远古时期的环境状况适宜微生物生存。


3 月 18 日(美国东部时间),美国德州月球和行星科学会议发布的一份新闻简报证实了另一项发现,表明挖掘地点之外的区域也存在着含水物质


研究人员使用“好奇”号火星车上的红外观测相机,以及能够释放中子至火星表面的勘测仪器,他们发现之前“好奇”号抵达的含黏土岩层地点邻近区域也存在着更多的水合矿物质。


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2013 年 12 月 9 日,NASA 公布“火星好奇号”机器人拍摄到火星盖尔环形山图片。科学家表示,好奇号在附近进行勘探并且发现可能存在水的可能;虽然没有直接找到水,但科学仪器表明可能性非常大。


2015 年 03 月 06 日,科学家称火星表面曾非常湿润 ,含水量超过北冰洋。美国宇航局行星科学部门主管吉姆·格林(Jim Green)指出,对火星大气开展的一项研究显示这颗行星的几乎整个北半球在历史上都曾经被深度达到 1 英里左右的水体所覆盖。


这项研究还发现火星地表直到大约 12 亿年前还存在着大量的水体。2015 年 9 月 29 日,美国宇航局称最新证据表明此前在火星表面一些陨坑坑壁上观察到的神秘暗色条纹可能与间歇性出现的液态水体有关。


来自卫星的数据表明这些出现在坑壁上的暗色条纹可能是含盐水体沉积过程产生的结果。


尤为关键的一点在于,这种含盐水体将能够改变火星表面水体的冰点与沸点,从而使得液态水体在火星地表的存在成为可能。


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好了,今天的干货篇就分享到这里啦,小伙伴们看完文章学习觉得有用吗?喜欢的话记得点个在看哦!!


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